India is the second most populous country in the world with 1.37 billion people. A United Nations report released a year earlier reported that around the year 2027, India is set to overtake China as the world’s most populous country.
Excessive population has various adverse effects including undue pressure on natural resources. More people mean more consumption which in turn leads to more exploitation of fixed and extractable resources. Also, population is not a universal challenge. It is typical for nations whose economies have not yet achieved full potential and growth. Along with China and India, African and some Latin countries also have very high population growth rates. Rather, China, which is the most populous country, has achieved very commendable control over the growth of its population, although their methods are highly autocratic and cannot be replicated in other countries.
We know that the birth rate is mainly responsible for rapid population growth. Therefore measures that reduce birth rate should be adopted. These measures can be classified into different categories.
(1) Raising the status of women – There is still discrimination against women. They are limited to the four walls of the house. They are still limited to raising and nurturing children. Therefore women should be given opportunities to develop socially and economically. They should be given free education.
(2) Spread of education – The spread of education changes people’s attitudes. Educated men like to delay marriage and adopt smaller family norms. Educated women are health conscious and avoid repeated pregnancies and thus help in reducing the birth rate.
(3) Social security – More & more people should be covered under social security schemes. So that they do not depend on others in the event of old age, sickness, unemployment etc., they will not have any desire to have more children with these facilities.
(1) Recreational facilities – If there are various recreational facilities like cinema, the birth rate will decline; theatre, sports and dance etc. are available for the people.
(2) Spreading awareness – People need to be told and made to understand the consequences of having many children. Government and non-government institutions can conduct awareness campaigns by telling people how they will be able to provide good nutrition, education or medical facilities to their children if they are too numerous. Population is also a cause of illiteracy and diseases and malnutrition and there is a need to expand their logic and understanding in order to spread its negative effects to the general public.
In short, by adopting all these measures we can control the growth of population.